Recognizing growing threats to the Nation's coastal and ocean resources, and a lack of coordinated planning and management across federal, state, and local jurisdictions, Congress passed the federal Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) in 1972 to authorize and support state-level coastal zone management programs. The Act established a voluntary partnership between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and coastal states to manage shared resources, and provided a framework to address the diverse needs and circumstances of all 35 coastal (and Great Lakes) states and territories in the U.S. Under the federal CZMA, the following types of grants are made available annually to the South Carolina Coastal Zone Management Program:
Federal funds allocated to the state under Section 306 are used for the implementation and administration of the coastal management program, particularly those activities that implement enforceable program policies, authorities, and other management techniques described in the CZMA. The Secretary of Commerce or his/her designee (NOAA) establishes minimum and maximum state allocations annually and utilizes a weighted formula based upon the state's proportionate share of tidal shoreline mileage and coastal population.
The Coastal Resource Improvement Program is intended to assist coastal states with one or more of the following objectives: preservation or restoration of areas designated by the management program as geographic areas of particular concern; redevelopment of urban waterfronts and ports; providing public access to coastal beaches and other public coastal areas; and the development of a coordinated process to regulate and permit aquaculture facilities. In order to achieve one or more of these objectives, grants may be used for fee-simple acquisition of property or interests in property, low-cost construction projects, engineering designs and specifications, and other management costs such as educational efforts.
Coastal Zone Enhancement Grants are awarded to coastal states with a NOAA -approved Assessment and Strategy, conducted every five years, that addresses one or more of the enhancement areas of national importance. The nine enhancement areas include wetlands, coastal hazards, public access, marine debris, cumulative and secondary impacts, special area management plans, ocean resources, energy facility siting, and aquaculture. The intention of Section 309 awards is to encourage continuous improvement of coastal management programs and the development of program changes in support of coastal zone enhancement objectives as identified by the states.
The Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Program (CNPCP), administered jointly by NOAA and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was authorized through Section 6217 of the Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments in 1990. The CNPCP establishes management measures to address polluted runoff in six specific areas, including forestry, agriculture, urban areas, marinas, hydromodification, and riparian areas. CNPCP funding is allocated through Section 310 of the CZMA, which addresses programs of technical assistance and management-oriented research for the development and implementation of state coastal management program amendments.